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Colors used in Pattachitra and their sources

Pattachitra painting, an organic folk art, uses all its materials in their natural states. Thus, the colors used, too, are made of natural ingredients like china-clay, soft-clay or chalk, conch-cell, red stone, yellow-brown-ochre, and so forth. Charcoal powder is used for coloring black; sea shells available in bountiful amounts on the sea coasts of Odisha, for white; juices of boiled green leaves along with proportionate amounts of gum of Kaitha or Bilwa fruit, or unique green stones, or simply a clever mixture of black and yellow in specific proportion, for green; powdered hingula (red ochre), powdered using pastle stone and then formed into a tablet to be dried, for red; powdered harital stone (yellow ochre) mixed with water and formed into a tablet to be dried, for yellow; and indigo or a kid of soft-stone called rajabarta, for blue.

To manufacture white paints, the powdered sea shells are mixed with water and kept in a basin, for two days. The mixture is stirred until soft and milky, after which it is heated with the gum of Kaitha fruit, scientifically called Feromia Elephantum. The paste thus prepared is then dried in the sun to form solid white substance, used as white colour.

Collyrium is traditionally made by Odisha’s women folk. Oiled leaf is held over the smoke of burning wick. To make black paint, earthen plate is used in the stead of leaf, and the smoke formed at the bottom of the plate thickens to black substance, which is then mixed with the gum of Kaitha or Bilwa fruit. The paste is then ready to be used as black paint.

There are only five main colors, all derived from natural resourced, used traditionally for painting the pattas. These natural five colors, also called Pancha Tatwa- suggestive of five ingredients- are paralleled and associated with the divine colors of Jagannath, Balabhadra, Subhadra, Sinhasana (The Throne), Nila-chakra (The Blue Wheel) by the folk painters and saints of Odisha.

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Materials used by folk artists

With the modernization and advancement of age, modern techniques of painting even traditional art forms have now crept in. Yet, the idea that plastic and synthetic colors are being used by the folk artists of Odisha still remains strange. In a art form so stoic and rigid, so rooted in its tradition, that every article and ornament keeps its shape, location, connotation, and significance, that every animal has been depicted with the same old and familiar stylized features, that every personality holds its absolute marks of identification defined by the ancient texts, religious myths and local tradition, it is indeed revolutionary and meaning-changing to experience modernity in patta painting.

Orissa’s is a world of myths and gods, entrenched deeply in folk imagination that is naught but the manifestation of thoughts, feelings, and experiences of the many Indian peasants, fishermen, and craftsmen. Thus, the paintings of the state speak the same language of their creators who decant their lives into their exacting art. The performances displayed by the painters are the inscriptions on canvas, of an incomparable artistic dexterity. The matchless craftsmanship, exemplified by the folk-painters has both an individual slot of its own yet many facets such as of a prism’s, which carve themselves out of the unfathomable depths of the sensibility.

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Pattachitra in Home Decor

A famous folk art of Orissa, Pattachitra is form of scroll painting on canvas, aboriginal to Orissa and traditionally uses colours derived from organic sources. Because the art is so raw and elemental, and uses iconic illustrations such as the totem like illustration of Sri Jagannath, people often limit its purpose to temples and rarely use in home décor or for personal use. The form is a tribute to Hindu gods and an offshoot of worships and rituals associated with the history of Sri Jagannath, but it’s an art, too, not only a rite specific to a religion.

The simple matter that patta paintings are so vibrant makes them pieces to have in homes, but especially in Indian homes, as they are so entrenched in the indigenous Indian culture that a patta painting beholds great cultural and chronological leverage over many other types of paintings. The brush strokes speak loudly and proudly, adding thrill and a line of interest to a home decor. Modern Pattachitra paintings have also now been founded and explored, in which contemporary Pattachitra artists use adulterated material and unconventional icons. Consequently, the art now finds itself even in contemporary style homes. Traditionally, folk artist would use colours made from natural ingredients like china clay, soft clay or chalk, conch shell, red stone, yellow-brown ochre, and so on, and paint them using brushes made manually from the keya root and hairs of mouse and buffalo, on silk (for canvas). Black would come from charcoal powder, and white from sea shells plentiful on shores of Orissa.

It’s one’s own discretion to choose an art piece as per one’s own taste and home décor, but essentially, there are six types, based on:

Sri Jagannath Pati

Great Indian epics

Orissa folk lore

The art of bratas and worship rituals

Animals and birds

Eroticism

The paintings based on Sri Jagannath Pati and great Indian folks are more traditional in nature, adhering to the purpose of depiction of the deity and the holy “triad”, or mythologies, respectively. Whilst bright, these kinds of art are also solemn. The best suited décor that’ll be able to support this sort of art must be mature, and in style preferably earthen, or eclectic, or indigenously traditional to be in harmony with the painting. On the other hand, the Pattachitra paintings based on animals and birds are lighter in pathos, and their purpose is mainly depiction of nature. These paintings are soothing to eyes and soft in their implication. Such paintings are perfect for cottage style homes, coastal style homes, industrial homes, and country style homes, as they personify leisure and romanticism. Then, there are erotic Pattachitras which are tamasik in nature, exploring the darker side of nature. This art is bold, and finds itself in place in rustic style homes, Tuscan style homes, Moroccan style homes, eclectic style homes, and also indigenous traditional homes.

Besides paintings, Pattachitra is also finding its reaches in many scopes- like statues, artifacts, miscellaneous products such as pots, bookmarks, trinkets, accessories, etc, wall art, and more.

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The village that makes exquisite Pattachitra paintings – By Premjit Mohapatra

Orissa’s villages are the centres of the famous Pattachitra paintings which have blossomed and flourished around the religious centers of Puri, Konark and Bhubaneswar. The most skillful exponents of this living art form producing the most exquisitely designed pattachitras are found in Raghurajpur,a small village in Puri district. This idyllic village dotted with mango, coconut and jackfruits trees and other tropical trees; nestled on the southern banks of river Bhargabi is considered a haven of Pattachitra.

As you enter the villages you see houses arranged in two neat rows, facing each other on either side of narrow lanes. At the centre, runs a line of small temples and total wooden interiors and traditional decors tell us that each house is an artist’s studio. This is also the only village in India, where each family is engaged in one craft or the other–patta painting, wooden toys, tusser silk paintings, stone carvings, etc. Art and Crafts is integral to the people living of this village with the socio-cultural and economic lives centred around it. The knowledge of the craft and drawing skills is passed on from the one generation to another in the traditional Guru- Shishya Parampara (Teacher and student tradition), and has few Padma Bhushan or a Padma Shree awardees among them.

Another branch of the art tradition of Pattachitra that the village is renowned for is Talapatachitra. Talapatachitra (tala – palm, patra – leaf, chitra – illustration) consists of inscribing letters and painting artistic designs on palm-leaf. For palm leaf pattachitra leaves are from tree and dried. They are then cut into standard sizes and held together with two wooden plank covers stringed through a hole in the center. After needle-sharp fine drawings are carefully etched and cut out, they are delicately strung together with thread. Stories of gods and goddesses besides great mythological epics are depicted with minute details in a fascinating way. The talapatachitra paintings also include natural sceneries, local legends and folklore.

Pattachitra painting has a rich heritage and Raghurajpur has been recognized as India’s first heritage crafts village. Pattachitra paintings have found global recognition and captured the imagination of artists and art lovers worldwide.

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Pattachitra- the unbroken living tradition of Odisha – By Premjit Mohapatra

Utkala, Odisha’s ancient name literally translates to the Land of Rich Art. The land is blessed with a rich heritage of art forms which are fascinating in its plenitude and have a rich legacy that harks back hundreds of years. Almost every place is a haven of myriad creative forms where every motif and fabric is different and tells a different story through the vistas of time. They are of immense cultural value to the local communities or ethnic groups that have practiced the crafts for centuries and are representatives of their existence and tradition. One such exquisite craft is Pattachitra–The historically enriched canvas symbolised by its vivid detailing and colorful depictions provides a multitude of inspirations to revisit the old traditions, and help us understand Odisha’s past, through a crafts-based narrative. Pattachitra provides a link to our roots and is a part of our shared heritage.

Pattachitra is one of the oldest art forms of Odisha having a legacy of over a thousand years and manifesting in beautiful motifs steeped in Jagannath culture and Hindu mythology. Each piece illustrated through a melange of rich colours, fine details, and aesthetic designs represents, for its maker, an artistic journey imbued with the love and commitment to Pattachitra, and bears testimony to the Chitrakars (Pattachita artists) skill and exquisite craftsmanship.

The provenance of Pattachitra is linked to the Jagannath temple of Puri and kept alive by the demands of millions of devotees who throng to Puri from all over the world. As Pattachitra originated in the temple premises of Jagannath Puri the paintings have a ritualistic significance even to this day with the worship of “Pati Dian” (portrait of the Trinity made of Pattachitra) in the Puri Jagannath temple during the period of ‘Anasar’ (sickness).

The GI Tag associated with Pattachitra is owned by Odisha, where a little village called Raghurajpur on the banks of river Bhargavi near Puri is an abode of Pattachitra paintings. The Pattachitra from Raghurajpur has its unique style where the artisans produce sheer poetry on pieces of treated cloth, dried palm leaf or paper. The living art form of Pattachitra is practiced by families of Raghunathpur who have been creating this art for generations. The legacy continues to thrive with nearly 50-60 families practicing Patachitra paintings and around 30-40 families dedicated to Palm leaf paintings. The village also indulges crafts like wooden toys, stone carving, papier mache, coconut shell painting and cow-dung toys.

The traditional arts of Pattachitra has withstood the test of time cause generations of artisans have dedicated their lives to it, drawing inspiration from a shared value system, one that emphasizes honouring the traditions and its spiritual philosophy. The craft demands an unmatched understanding of the discipline, its tools, its techniques and its correct function, as well as a never-ending commitment to education and self-improvement. The Heritage village of Raghurajpur has been selected by INTACH to revive the ancient wall paintings of Odisha, today resembles a living museum of paintings courtesy the unending engagements and relentless efforts of the Pattachitra artists.

Despite the bleak prognosis for most traditional art forms, Pattachitra’s longevity and success could be attributed to its resiliency to adapt and innovate with the passage of time and not remain a static form. With time, Pattachitra has gone through a commendable transition to meet contemporary tastes and sensibilities. The Chitrakars (Painters) have painted on tussar silk and palm leaves and even created Pattachitra style wall hangings murals. Now, Pattachitra paintings are available on a variety of home décor products like serve wares, table tops, showpieces like vases, glass bottles and wooden boxes, home furnishing items like bedspreads in a variety of modern colors and designs. To suit the requirements of the modern times the Chitrakars are experimenting with varied themes including erotica. Pattachitra jewelry, sarees, dupattas, other apparels are also gathering recognition among its loyal patrons while creating enough buzz to get the attention of newer patrons.

Preservation of precious arts/crafts is always no more than a single generation away from being lost. Traditional crafts like Pattachitra will only survive if the skills live in each generation. The vital and constantly reinvigorated artistic traditions of Pattachitra need to be marketed

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